Scallop Shells in the Family PECTINIDAE and the closely related PROPEAMUSSIIDAE, Glass Scallops, are both classified in the Superfamily PECTINOIDEA. Scallop shells in both Families are generically referred to by collectors as "Pectens".

SCALLOPS IN HISTORY: Scallop shells have been a pervasive symbol throughout history; the scallop is most commonly associated with herldry. Family insignias or crests often were adorned with scallops and the adornment of armorial ensigns during the Middle Ages. In more recent years companies like the Shell Oil Corporation have branded their business around the scallop shell; appropriately so since the company got its start in 1833 as an import/export business with one of its commodities being seashells. The beauty and variability of Pectens have inspired artists for centuries. The scallop appears as a centerpiece or background image in many famous paintings by the great masters and continues to be found in the art of todays post-modern painters.

Pectens are extremely popular with shell collectors due in large part to the extreme variability in color, pattern, and form. A large array of Pectens exhibiting a range of colors and patterns can be a stunning and aesthetically pleasing display.

ECOLOGY: The Pectens, are bivalve mollusks that have been a major source of food bounty for as long as man has fished the oceans. The Pectens inhabit shallow and intertidal marine environments to as deep as a few hundred fathoms of water. The Pectens are the mainstay of many fishing fleets around the world.

LITERATURE: Though most information about Pectens are scattered through out a wide variety of popular and scientific publications, one poular book is very useful as an introduction to the beauty and diversity of these shells -- Guidebook To Pecten Shells, Recent Pectinidae And Propeamussiidae Of The World by A. Rombouts (Universal Book Services/Dr. W. Backhuys, 1991). Though some advanced conchologists disagree with some of the nomenclature used in the book, it is still a very important first reference when identifying the Pectens.

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Phylum: MOLLUSCA (Linné, 1758) Cuvier, 1795

Class: BIVALVIA Linné, 1758

Subclass: PTERIOMORPHIA Beurlen, 1944

Order: OSTREOIDA Férussac, 1822

Suborder: PECTININA Waller, 1978

Superfamily: PECTINOIDEA Wilkes, 1810

Family: PROPEAMUSSIIDAE Abbott, 1954

Family: PECTINIDAE Wilkes, 1810

Highlight then click the name for additional classification information.

Taxonomic Ref.:



REFERENCE: Henk H. Dijkstra, 2004. Classification of Pectinoidea.  SCALLOPS (Propeamussiidae & Pectinidae)  [Web Publication]
Subfamily: PROPEAMUSSIINAE back to menutop of page
Genus Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884   >
Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884; Vaught, 1989: 117; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 177 [Propeamussiidae]; Le Renard, 1996: 153. Propeamusium Dall, 1886 (nom.van.); Paramusium Verrill, 1897; Paramussium de Gregorio, 1898 (n.null.); Propeannessium Cossmann & Pisarro, 1906 (nom.null.); Flavamussium Oyama, 1951; Luteamussium Oyama, 1951.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Propeamussium caducumPropeamussium caducum (E.A.Smith, 1885) - Taiwan, 17mm. Ref.:   Propeamussium jeffreysiiPropeamussium jeffreysii (E.A. Smith, 1885) - Tosa, Japan, 19mm - this specimen was taken in 120 fathoms of water. Ref.:  
Genus PARVAMUSSIUM Sacco, 1897   >
Parvamussium Sacco, 1897; Variamussium Sacco, 1897, Parviamussium Dall, 1898 (nom.null.), Variopecten Broili in Zittel, 1924 (nom.null.), Ctenamusium Iredale, 1929, Glyptamusium Iredale, 1939, Graptamussium Oyama, 1944, Squamamussium Oyama, 1944, Xenamussium Oyama, 1944, Bathyamussium Oyama, 1951 (invalid), Micramussium Oyama, 1951, Polynemamussium Habe, 1951, Propeamussium (Parvamussium); Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 177 [Propeamussiidae].
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca, p.371.
Genus CYCLOPECTEN Verrill, 1897   >
Cyclopecten Verrill, 1897; Vaught, 1989: 119; Le Renard, 1996: 154, Cycopecten de Gregorio, 1898 (nom.null.), Cyclochlamys Finlay, 1926 (nom.null.), Chlamydella Iredale, 1939, Aretinula Neave, 1939 (nom.null.), Catillopecten Iredale, 1939.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca, p.369.
Genus SIMILIPECTEN Winckworth, 1932   >
Similipecten Winckworth, 1932; Arctinula Thiele, 1935.
Ref.: Dijkstra, H.H., 2004. Classification of Pectinoidea. SCALLOPS (Propeamussiidae & Pectinidae)
Genus CYCLOCHLAMYS Finlay, 1926   >
Cyclochlamys Finlay, 1926; Chlamydella Iredale, 1929.
Ref.: Dijkstra, H.H., 2004. Classification of Pectinoidea. SCALLOPS (Propeamussiidae & Pectinidae)
Genus CATILLOPECTEN Iredale, 1939   >
Catillopecten Iredale, 1939; Bathypecten Schein-Fatton, 1985.
Ref.: Dijkstra, H.H., 2004. Classification of Pectinoidea. SCALLOPS (Propeamussiidae & Pectinidae)
Subfamily: CAMPTONECTINAE back to menutop of page
Subfamily: CHLAMYDINAE back to menutop of page
Genus CHLAMYS Röding, 1798   >
Genus Chlamys Röding, 1798; Vaught, 1989: 118; Le Renard, 1996: 154, Belchlamys Iredale, 1939, Caralichlamys Iredale, 1939, Chalmys Dollfus & Dautzenberg, 1886 (nom.null.), Chlamydina Cossmann, 1909, Clamys Leach, 1815 (nom.null.), Felipes Locard in Carus, 1889 (Nov/Dec.), Flexopecten Sacco, 1897; Vaught, 1989: 119, Flexipecten Oppenheim, 1903 (nom.null.) Glabropecten Sacco, 1897, Karnekampia Wagner, 1988; Vaught, 1989: 119, Manupecten Monterosato, 1889 (Apr.), Myochlamys von Ihering, 1907 (non Fairmaire, 1876), Porosichlamys Barsotti in Lucas, 1979, Proteopecten Monterosato, 1899, Scaeochlamys Iredale, 1939, Talochlamys Iredale, 1939, Veprichlamys Iredale, 1939, Argopecten (Manupecten); Vaught, 1989: 119; Subgenus: MIMACHLAMYS Iredale, 1929, Mimachlamys Iredale, 1929; Vokes, 1980: 53 [Pectinidae, Chlamys group]; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 177 [Chlamydinae]
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.368.
Chlamys corruscans hawaiiensisChlamys corruscans hawaiiensis Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 - Hawaii, 9-10mm. Chlamys dichroaChlamys dichroa (Suter, 1909) - New Zealand 39.1mm - A rather rare species. The illustrated shell was taken ex-pisces from the stomach of a Blue Cod around Stewart Island in the 1960's. From the collection of Travis Payne.
Chlamys felipponeiChlamys felipponei (Dall, 1922) - Argentina, 71mm. The valves are covered with a fine micro-surface sculpture. Chlamys islandicaChlamys i. islandica (Müller, 1776) - Scotland, 71-80mm. Chlamys islandica behringianaChlamys islandica behringiana (Middendorff, 1849) - Alaska, 62-74mm.
Chlamys mildredaeChlamys mildredae (F.M. Bayer, 1943) - Florida, 33.5mm.    
Genus ADAMUSSIUM Thiele, 1934 ?   >
Genus Adamussium Thiele, 1934 ?
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.371.
Adamussium colbeckiAdamussium colbecki Smith - Antarctic, 86mm - found throughout the Antarctic intertidally down to as deep as 1500 meters. The Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica has additional information about, and pictures of A. colbecki.  
Subfamily: PECTININAE back to menutop of page
Aequipecten glyptusAequipecten glyptus (Verrill, 1882) - Florida, 54mm. Argopecten nucleusArgopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) - Colombia, 33mm. Karnekampia brueiKarnekampia bruei (Payraudeau, 1826) - Italy, 15mm.
Anguipecten superbusAnguipecten superbus (Sowerby II, 1842) - Philippines, 71.5mm. Decatopecten noduliferumDecatopecten noduliferum (Sowerby, 1842) - Hawaii, 24.5mm. Decatopecten noduliferumDecatopecten noduliferum (Sowerby, 1842) - Hawaii, 25-27mm.
Flexopecten flexuosaFlexopecten flexuosa (Poli, 1795) - Spain, 28-36mm. Flexopecten flexuosaFlexopecten flexuosa (Poli, 1795) - Spain, 34mm, an odd color form. Flexopecten glaberFlexopecten glaber (Linné, 1758) - Turkey, 70-75mm.
Gloripallium sanguinolentaGloripallium sanguinolenta (Gmelin, 1791) - Egypt, 43.2mm; possibly in genus Excellichlamys. Hinnites distortusHinnites distortus (daCosta, 1778) - France, 33-38mm. Hinnites giganteusHinnites giganteus (Gray, 1825) - Mexico, 104-108mm.
Juxtamusium maldivensisJuxtamusium maldivensis (E.A.Smith, 1903) - Philippines, 23-25mm. Juxtamusium maldivensisJuxtamusium maldivensis (E.A.Smith, 1903) - Philippines, 25mm. Lyropecten antillarumLyropecten antillarum (Recluz, 1853) - British Virgin Islands, 19-22mm.
PECTININAE con't. back to menutop of page
Lyropecten corallinoidesLyropecten corallinoides (Orbigny, 1884) - Canary Islands, 32mm. Lyropecten nodosusLyropecten nodosus (Linné, 1758) - Colombia, 54mm. Lyropecten nodosusLyropecten nodosus (Linné, 1758) - Colombia, 82mm.
Lyropecten nodosusLyropecten nodosus (Linné, 1758) - Colombia, 86mm. Lyropecten subnodosusLyropecten subnodosus (Sowerby, 1835) - Mexico, 141mm. Manupecten pesfelisManupecten pesfelis (Linné, 1758) - Italy, 57mm.
Mirapecten moluccensisMirapecten moluccensis Dijkstra, 1988 - Philippines, 26-29mm. Mirapecten rastellumMirapecten rastellum (Lamarck, 1819) - Philippines, 34-36mm. Nodipecten arthriticusNodipecten arthriticus (Reeve, 1853) - Pacific Panama, 45-50mm.
Nodipecten nodosus fragosusNodipecten nodosus fragosus (Conrad, 1849) - Florida, 114mm - considered by some Pecten specialists to be different than the southern Caribbean N. nodosus. Pacipecten linkiPacipecten linki (Dall, 1926) - Honduras, 27-29mm. Palliolum incomparabilePalliolum incomparabile (Risso, 1826) - Spain, 6-9mm; type species of genus.
Palliolum tigerinumPalliolum tigerinum (Müller, 1776) - France, 25-28mm Pecten diegensisPecten diegensis Dall, 1898 - California, 70-75mm. Pecten exoticusPecten exoticus Dillwyn, 1817 - Congo, 32-35mm.
Pecten jacobeusPecten jacobeus (Linné, 1758) - Italy, 62mm - a freak specimen, which survived from damaged during growth. Pecten maximusPecten maximus (Linné, 1758) - France, 97-105mm. Pecten tricarinatusPecten tricarinatus Anton, 1839 - Taiwan, 30-33mm.
Volachlamys fultoniVolachlamys fultoni Sowerby III, 1904 - Mozambique, 31-35mm.    
Subfamily: PATINOPECTININAE back to menutop of page