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Phylum: MOLLUSCA (Linné, 1758) Cuvier, 1795

Class: GASTROPODA Cuvier, 1797

Subclass: ORTHOGASTROPODA Ponder & Lindberg, 1996

Superorder: CAENOGASTROPODA Cox, 1960

Order: SORBEOCONCHA Ponder & Lindberg, 1997

Suborder: HYPSOGASTROPODA Ponder & Lindberg, 1997

Infraorder: PTENOGLOSSA Gray, 1853

   Superfamily: EPITONIOIDEA Berry, S.S., 1910

Family: EPITONIIDAE Berry S.S., 1910

Highlight then click the name for additional classification information.

Subfamily: EPITONINAE back to menutop of page
AMAEA H. & A. Adams, 1853  
Amaea bruneopictaAmaea bruneopicta (Dall, 1908) - Pacific Panama, 28mm - the species ranges from southern Baja south to the Galapagos Islands. These were dredged in 200-300 feet of water. Ref.: Amaea magnificaAmaea magnifica (Sowerby, 1844) - Japan, 71mm - the largest species of Epitoniidae in Japanese waters. Uncommonly trawled. Ref.:
Amaea mitchelliAmaea mitchelli (Dall, 1896) - Colombia, 44-47mm - taken by fishing trawlers off the Guajira Peninsula. Some Epitonium specialists consider this to be different from the A. mitchelli found in the Gulf of Mexico off Texas. Ref.:    
BOREOSCALA Kobelt, 1902  
Boreoscala Kobelt, 1902: Ref.: .
Boreoscala greenlandicaBoreoscala greenlandica (Perry, 1811) - Alaska, 36mm - Circumboreal distribution south to temperate waters. These shells were trawled in the Aleutian Islands in 90 meters of water. Ref.:  
CIRSOTREMA Mörch, 1852  
Cirsotrema bennettorumCirsotrema bennettorum Garcia, 2000 - New Caledonia, 20-28mm - from deep water. Formerly listed on this Web site as Eptionium sp. -- much speculation about its identity lead to it being described as new to science. It is most certainly unique amongst the Wentletraps. Ref.: Novapex 1 (3-4): 105-107, 20 Oct. 2000. Cirsotrema dalliCirsotrema dalli Rehder, 1945 - Caribbean Panama, 33mm - considered by some to be C. cochlea. Ref.:
Cirsotrema edgariCirsotrema edgari (de Boury, 1912) [+ eboreum Lan, 1976] - Philippines, 45mm - the fluted varices are the most identifiable and remarkable feature of this species. Ref.: Cirsotrema plexisCirsotrema plexis (Dall, 1925) - Japan, 25mm - a deepwater species. Ref.: Cirsotrema rugosumCircostrema (Cirsotrema) rugosum Kuroda & Ito, 1961 - Philippines, 73mm - one of the truly spectacular species of Epitoniidae. Taken in tangle net in the central Philippines. Ref.:
Cirsotrema varicosaCirsotrema varicosa (Lamarck, 1822) - Philippines, 63mm - the scabrous sculpture is the most notable characteristic. This specimen is very large for the species. Ref.:    
EPITONIUM Röding, 1798  
Epitonium costulatumEpitonium costulatum Kiener, 1839 - Thailand, 35mm - delicate blade-like ribs; smaller size specimens have also been found in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Ref.: Epitonium dallianumEpitonium dallianum Verrill & Smith, 1880 - Florida, 11-13mm - dredged in moderately deep water. Ref.:
Epitonium krebsiiEpitonium krebsii (Mörch, 1874) - Colombia, 18-19mm - dredged. Found throughout the West Indies. Ref.: Epitonium imperialisEpitonium imperialis Sowerby, 1844 - Australia, 39mm - found in 2-3 meters of water, buried in almost 8 inches of sand under sea anemone. Ref.: Epitonium sp.Epitonium sp. - East Diamond Island, Coral Sea; 6mm - An unusual species with a corkscrew shape. Collection of Bret Raines. Ref.:
GYROSCALA de Boury, 1887  
Gyroscala de Boury, 1887: 15. Type species (o.d.): Scalaria commutata Monterosato, 1877 [= Scalaria lamellosa Lamarck, 1822]; Kilburn, 1985: 261; Vaught, 1989: 40; Le Renard, 1996: 58, Turbona Brown in Mörch, 1874 (non Turbona Leach, 1847), Pictoscala Dall, 1917, Cirsotrema (Gyroscala); Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 158 [Epitoniinae].   Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca :A classification of worldwide Mollusca. p.131.
Gyroscala statuminatumGyroscala statuminatum (Sowerby, 1844) - Pacific Panama, 16-20mm - recurved ribs. An uncommon intertidal Panamic species. Ref.:  
STHENORHYTIS Conrad, 1862  
Sthenorhytis Conrad, 1862; Vaught, 1989: 40, Pseudostenorytis Sacco, 1891, Stenorhyscala de Boury, 1912 (err.), Stenorhytiscala de Boury, 1912 (err.), Stenorhytis Cossmann, 1912 (err.), Pseudostenorhytis Cossmann, 1912 (err.).   Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca :A classification of worldwide Mollusca. p.132.
Sthenorytis pernobilisSthenorytis pernobilis (Fischer & Bernardi, 1857) - Florida, 37mm - Found from Florida through Brazil in relatively deep water. A number of specimens surfaced through dredging activities around the southern Gulf of Mexico in the 1960's and early 70's. In recent years the species has only been recycled from older collections. The species is now considered extremely rare and valued by collectors. Ref.: Sthenorytis turbinumSthenorytis turbinum (Dall, 1908) - Galapagos Islands, 56mm - One of the truly outstanding molluscan species. Few are represented in private collections. The specimen illustrated here was trawled off Santa Cruz Island. Ref.:
Subfamily: NYSTIELLINAE back to menutop of page
Subfamily: PSEUDONININAE back to menutop of page
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