The CANCELLARIIDAE are a worldwide family of mollusks commonly referred to as Nutmegs. As the name "Cancellaria" suggests, many species are adorned with a cancellate sculpture on a portion, or all of the shell. The species that make up the family Cancellariidae are quite diverse. Most are under an inch (25mm) in size, though some Panamic species are known to reach 4 or 5 inches. The bulk of the species are classified within two genera - the Cancellaria with strong cancellate sculpture, and the Trigonostoma exhibiting slightly to extremely scalariform whorls. Other noted genera include Admete, Africotriton, Agatrix, Narona, Perplicaria, and Scalptia. Another distinguishing feature of the family is the presence of several prominent columellar plicae.

ECOLOGY: Cancellarioidea inhabit mostly subtidal to bathyal depths in tropical to temperate regions. The cancellarioidean species live on sand and muddy substrates.

TAXONOMY:


Cancellariidae
Cancellariidae

QUICK LIST OF CANCELLARIIDAE ON THIS PAGE
Show List   Hide List
Move Quick List box with mouse-pointer


CANCELLARIIDAE PICTURE & TAXONOMIC LINKS


SEARCH BOX

SEARCH worldwideconchology.com
Search worldwideconchology.com - Enter search word. Avoid using the word "shell" -
e.g., use Cone instead of Cone shell.

*  *  *

GOOGLE CANCELLARIIDAE ON THE INTERNET


SELECTED CANCELLARIIDAE LITERATURE

The illustrated shells are from various private, or museum collections.
Click on the thumbnail images for an enlarged view. Images will open up in a separate, resizeable window.
* Turn off your browser's pop-up blocker to see enlarged pictures and links. *
top of page
    
CANCELLARIIDAE CLASSIFICATION

Phylum: MOLLUSCA (Linné, 1758) Cuvier, 1795

Class: GASTROPODA Cuvier, 1797

Subclass: PROSOBRANCHIA Milne Edwards, 1848

Order: CAENOGASTROPODA Cox, 1959

Suborder: NEOGASTROPODA Thiele, 1929

      Superfamily: CANCELLARIOIDEA Forbes and Hanley, 1851

Family: CANCELLARIIDAE Forbes & Hanley, 1853




Highlight then click the name for additional classification information.

CANCELLARIIDAE SUBFAMILIES & GENERA
Subfamily: CANCELLARIINAE back to menutop of page
AXELELLA Petit, 1988  >
Olssonella Petit, 1970 (non Glibert & Van de Poel, 1967). Type species (o.d.): Cancellaria smithii Dall, 1888, Recent, Western Atlantic; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 4 ; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 6 Axelella Petit, 1988: 130 (replacement name for Olssonella Petit, 1970, non Glibert & Van der Poel, 1967); Vaught, 1989: 56; Le Renard, 1996: 80.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Axelella smithiiAxelella smithii (Dall, 1888) - South Carolina, 12mm - this specimen was trawled off Charleston in 100-150 feet of water by a commercial shrimp boat. Geographical range from North Carolina to Colombia, South America. This species was originally described as Cancellaria and later placed in the genus Agatrix. The genus Axelella Petit, 1988 is a replacement name for Olssonella Petit, 1970. Axelella smithii is the type species of the genus. Ref.: Malacolog  
CANCELLARIA Lamarck, 1799  >
Cancellaria Lamarck, 1799: 71. Type species (monotypy): Voluta reticulata Linne, 1758, Recent, North Carolina to Gulf of Mexico. Cancellarius Montfort, 1810: 562. Type species (o.d.): Voluta reticulata Linnaeus, 1767 (A junior objective sysnonym of Cancellaria); Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 5 Exechoptychia Cossmann, 1903b: 189. Type species (o.d.): Cancellaria conradiana Dall, 1890; Pliocene, Florida and the Carolinas, USA. (A subjective synonym of Cancellaria (Petit & Harasewych, 1990)); Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 5 Plicaria Fabricius, 1823: 74. Fabricius' work has been placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature by ICZN Opinion 521. Prior placement of this work on the Official Index, Plicaria was traditionally included in the synonymy of Cancellaria. Eames (1952: 116) designated "P. reticulata (L.) [= Cancellaria reticulata (Linnaeus))" as type.( Petit & Harasewych, 1990); Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Cancellaria albidaCancellaria (C.) albida Hinds, 1843 - Pacific Panama, 24mm - found subtidally. The species ranges from southern Mexico south to Guayaquil, Ecuador. The shell is shiny white, heavily cancellate forming a prominent bead sculpture on the body whorl. It usually has a few bands. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.647. fig. 1448. Cancellaria bulbulusCancellaria (Pyruclia) bulbulus Sowerby, 1832 - Ecuador, 39mm - southern-most range for the species. Found as far north as Nicaragua. Trawled in 30-40 meters of water. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.654. fig. 1473.
Cancellaria cancellataCancellaria cancellata (Linné, 1758) - Spain, 44mm - dredged in 80 meters of water; extremely large size for the species. Ref.: Cancellaria chrysostomaCancellaria (Bivetopsia) chrysostoma Sowerby, 1832 - Pacific Panama, 21.5mm - pictured specimen was found in one fathom of water, in sand at the base of a rock. The species ranges from Panama down through Peru. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.651. fig. 1463. Cancellaria clavatulaCancellaria (Narona) clavatula Sowerby, 1832 - Pacific Panama, 25mm - one of the more interesting Cancellarids from the Panamic region. Found mostly in subtidal habitats. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.653. fig.1469.
Cancellaria darwiniCancellaria darwini Petit, 1970 - Galapagos Islands, 16mm - endemic species to the Galapagos. trawled in ▒ 200 meters of water. Rare in collections. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.647. fig.1449. Cancellaria foveolataCancellaria foveolata G.B. Sowerby, 1849 - South Africa, 20-25mm - washed ashore at Jeffrey's Bay. Commonly found in beach-drift; rarely found alive among tide pool rocks in sand and gravel. Light and dark color forms are known. Ref.: Kilburn, R. & Rippey, E., 1982. Sea Shells of Southern Africa. p.115, pl.27, no.15, fig. 67. Cancellaria jayanaCancellaria (Bevetia) jayana Keen, 1958 - Pacific Panama, 23mm - One of the highly sculptured Cancellarioid species. Found from Mexico to Panama in depths down to 70 meter or more. The shell is typically flesh-colored. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.651. fig. 1461.
Cancellaria laurettaeCancellaria (Euclia) laurettae Petit & Harasewych, 1998 - Pacific Panama, 23mm - dredged in 600 to 800 feet of water in Bay of Chiriqui. Ref.: Hemmen, J. 2007. Recent Cancellariidae. p.191.; Petit & Harasewych. 1998. Cancellaria (Euclia) laurettae, a new species of Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Neogastropoda) from western Panama. The Nautilus, 112(4): 113-116, figs. 1-4. Cancellaria mediamericanaCancellaria mediamericana Petuch, 1998 - Brazil, 26-28mm - Similar to and should be compared with Cancellaria reticulata, C. petuchi, and C. richardpetiti. The type locality is the coast of Caribbean Nicaragua. Ref.: Hemmen, 2007. Recent Cancellariidae. p.206.; Petuch, 1998. The molluscan fauna of the Wawa River region, Miskito coast, Nicaragua: ecology, biogeographical implications, and descriptions of new taxa. The Nautilus, 111(1):22-44, text-figs. 1-50. Cancellaria mitraeformisCancellaria (Hertleinia) mitraeformis Sowerby, 1832 - Pacific Panama, 33mm - Unmistakable sculpture and shape. Found intertidally in Panama, its northern-most range. Typically inhabits subtidal depths southward to Peru. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.653. fig. 1467.
Cancellaria noduliferaCancellaria (Habesolatia) nodulifera (Sowerby, 1825) - Mikawa-Issiki, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, 44mm - Type species of subgenus Habesolatia Kuroda, 1965. Found subtidally in Japan and Korea. This specimen was trawled in 30 meters of water on sand substrate. The deeply channeled suture is characteristic of the species. Ref.: Hemmen, J. 2007. Recent Cancellariidae. p.225. Cancellaria obesaCancellaria obesa Sowerby, 1832 - Pacific Panama, 34mm - wide range through Panamic region from the Gulf of California through Ecuador. Illustrated specimen is extremely reticulate, which tends to vary. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.647. fig. 1452. Cancellaria petuchiCancellaria petuchi Harasewych, Petit, & Verhecken, 1992 - Brazil, 36mm - found intertidally. C. petuchi is often found with the name C. reticulata in older collections, of which it is most closely related. Ref.: Malacolog
Cancellaria reticulataCancellaria reticulata (LinnÚ, 1767) - Florida Keys, 35mm - type species of the genus Cancellaria. Linnaeus originally described this species as a Volute. Ref.: Malacolog. Cancellaria tessellataCancellaria (Aphera) tessellata G.B. Sowerby, 1832 - Panama, 17-20mm - the type species of the subgenus Aphera H.& A. Adams, 1854. Found from the southern end of the Gulf of California down through Peru. Its shape and sculpture cannot be confused with any other Panamic cancellarioidean species. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.649. fig. 1458.  
Subfamily: CANCELLARIINAE (con't.) back to menutop of page
FUSIAPHERA Habe, 1961  >
Fusiaphera Habe, 1961: 72, Appendix p. 27. Type species (o.d.): Fusiaphera macrospira (Adams & Reeve) (=Cancellaria macrospira A. Adams & Reeve, 1850; but misidentified, should really = Fusiaphera macrospiratoides Habe, 1961), Recent, Japan.; Verhecken, 1986: 35; Beu & Marshall, 1987: 55; Petit & Harasewych, 190: 5.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Fusiaphera macrospiraFusiaphera macrospira (Adams & Reeve, 1850) - Japan, 29mm - trawled in deep water. Ref.:  
PERPLICARIA Dall, 1890  >
Perplicaria Dall, 1890: 90. Type species (monotypy): Perplicaria perplexa Dall, 1890; Pliocene, Florida; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Perplicaria clarkiPerplicaria clarki M.Smith, 1947 - Panama, 20mm - an intertidal species found from central Pacific Mexico down through Panama. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.656. fig. 1479.  
SCALPTIA Jousseaume, 1887  >
Scalptia Jousseaume, 1887: 213. Type species (o.d.): Cancellaria obliquata Lamarck, 1822; Recent, Indo-Pacific; Verhecken, 1986: 44; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7 Trigonaphera Iredale, 1936: 319. Type species (o.d.): Trigonostoma vinnulum Iredale, 1925; Recent, Australia; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Scalptia mercadoiScalptia mercadoi Old, 1968 - Philippines, 35mm - one of the truly unique Cancellarids. . Taken from tangle nets set in 40-60 fathoms of water. Ref.: Old, W.J., 1968. The Veliger. 10(3):286-289, pl. 43, fig. 3a-c (original description). Scalptia mercadoiScalptia mercadoi Old, 1968 - Philippines, 25-27mm - A paratype in L.A. County Museum has the locality data: Tayabas Bay, Quezon Province, Luzon Island, Philippines, the same locality as these two specimens were collected. Ref.: Springsteen, F.J. & Leobrera, F.M., 1986. Shells of the Philippines. p.78, pl.18, fig.21.
Scalptia scalaScalptia scala (Gmelin, 1791) - Senegal, 21-24mm - Synonym: Scalptia withrowi (Petit, 1976). Ref.: Hemmen, J. 2007. Recent Cancellariidae. p.275. Scalptia scalariformisScalptia scalariformis (Lamarck, 1822) - Philippines, 29.5mm - Synonym: Scalptia withrowi (Petit, 1976). Ref.: Hemmen, J. 2007. Recent Cancellariidae. p.277-278.  
SOLATIA Jousseaume, 1887  >
Solatia Jousseaume, 1887b: 222. Type species (o.d.): "Solatia solat Adams (Piscatorum Chemn.)" [= Buccinum piscatorium Gmelin, 1791]; Recent, western Africa; "Adams"as used by Jousseaume is an error for Adanson, whose non-binominal work referred to the type species as Le Solat; Vaught, 1989: 56; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7; Le Renard, 1996: 81.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Solatia piscatoriumSolatia piscatorium (Gmelin, 1791) - Senegal, 25-28mm - illustrated shells were dredged in 10-20 meters of water, but the species can also be found in the intertidal zones. The type species of the genus. Ref.: Nicklès, M. 1950. Mollusques testacés marins de la Côte occidentale d'Afrique. p.116, fig.211.  
TRIGONOSTOMA Blainville, 1827  >
Trigonostoma Blainville, 1827: 652. Type species (monotypy): Delphinula trigonostoma Lamarck, 1822 [= Buccinum scalare Gmelin, 1791; = Trigona pellucida Perry, 1811]; Recent- Indo-Pacific, Central West America; Cossmann, 1899: 24; Iredale, 1925: 263; Korobkov, 1955: 325; Wenz, 1943: 1358; Verhecken, 1986: 58; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7 Trigona Perry, 1811: pl. 51. Type species (monotypy): Trigona pellucida Perry, 1811. Non Jurine, 1807 (Hymenoptera). This preoccupied taxon is a subjective synonym of Trigonostoma Blainville; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Trigonostoma breveTrigonostoma (Ventrilia) breve Sowerby - Panama, 17-20mm - found intertidally and subtidally to a few meters deep, from Nicaragua to Panama. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.656. fig. 1483. Trigonostoma elegantulumTrigonostoma (Ventrilia) elegantulum M.Smith - Panama, 13-14mm - ranges from West Mexico south to Ecuador. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.658. fig. 1485.
Trigonostoma funiculatumTrigonostoma (Olssonella) funiculatum (Hinds 1843) - Panama, 15-17mm - found throughout tropical West America. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.656. fig. 1482. Trigonostoma milleriTrigonostoma (Extractrix) milleri Burch 1949 - Panama, 24-26mm - a unique and spectacular species with loosely coiled whorls. The coloring varies from fleshy-orange to slate gray. Ref.: Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.656. fig. 1480. Trigonostoma rugosumTrigonostoma (Bivetopsia) rugosum (Lamarck, 1822) - U.S. Virgin Islands, 18mm - inhabits southeast Florida and through the West Indies. Found scuba diving. The type locality is not known. (re: Malacolog). Ref.:
Trigonostoma scalareTrigonostoma scalare (Gmelin, 1791) - Philippines, 31mm - do not confuse with T. antiquata which has less scalariform whorls. Synonym: T. pellucida (Perry, 1811). Ref.: Trigonostoma scalareTrigonostoma scalare (Gmelin, 1791) - Philippines, 35-37mm - The right specimen exhibits a varix, or longitudinal ridge on the surface of the body whorl. It marks a stop point, or dormancy period in the growth of the snail's shell. Ref.: Trigonostoma scalareTrigonostoma scalare (Gmelin, 1791) - Philippines, 40.1mm - A large and well-formed specimen. Ref.:
Trigonostoma scalareTrigonostoma scalare (Gmelin, 1791) - Philippines - Two extremes; these specimens illustrate the variable nature of the species. The left specimen has tightly wrapped whorls while the whorls of the right specimen are much broader. Ref.:    
Subfamily: ADMETINAE back to menutop of page
ADMETE Kr°yer, 1842  >
Admete Kr°yer in M÷ller, 1842: 88 (ex Kr°yer MS). Type species (monotypy): Admete crispa M÷ller, 1842 [?= Tritonium viridulum Fabricius, 1780]; Recent, North Atlantic; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 4; Le Renard, 1996: 81; Subgenus: MARKSELLA Olsson, 1964, Marksella Olsson, 1964: 127. Type species (o.d.): Admete (Marksella) jumala Olsson, 1964; Pliocene, Ecuador; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 6.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca p.181.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
   
ADMETULA Cossmann, 1889  >
Admetula Cossmann, 1889: 228. Type species (o.d.): Cancellaria evulsa (Solander, 1766) [= Buccinum evulsa Solander, 1766]; Eocene, England; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 4.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca p.181.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
   
BONELLITIA Jousseaume, 1887  >
Bonellitia Jousseaume, 1887: 223. Type species (o.d.): Cancellaria bonellii Bellardi, 1841; Miocene to Pliocene fossil of southern Europe; Wrigley, 1935: 359; Davoli, 1982: 62; Verhecken, 1986: 33; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 4; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 168 [Admetinae].
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca p.181.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
   
ZEADMETE Finlay, 1926  >
Zeadmete Finlay, 1926b: 429. Type species (o.d.): Cancellaria trailli Hutton, 1873; Recent, New Zealand; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 8.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca p.181.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
   
Subfamily: PLESIOTRITONINAE back to menutop of page
AFRICOTRITON Beu & Marshall, 1987  >
Africotriton Beu & Marshall, 1987: 29. Type species (o.d.) Epidromus crebriliratus Sowerby, 1903. Recent South Africa; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 4
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Africotriton fictilisAfricotriton fictilis (Hinds, 1844) - South Africa, 18-19mm - taken in cray traps set in 100-150 meters of water in Algoa Bay. Endemic to South Africa. Ref.: Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.. p. 21.  
LOXOTAPHRUS Harris, 1897  >
Loxotaphrus Harris, 1897: 165. Type species (o.d.): Phos variciferus Tate, 1888, middle Miocene, Australia.;Beu & Marshall, 1987: 48; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 6.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Loxotaphrus deshayesiiLoxotaphrus deshayesii (Duval, 1841) - Senegal, 26.8mm - trawled. Once considered to be a member of the Family Cassidae, it is the only extant species in the genus. Ref.:  
TRITONOHARPA Dall, 1908  >
Tritonoharpa Dall, 1908: 319. Type species (o.d.) Tritonoharpa vexillata Dall, 1908. Recent, western America and the Galapagos Islands; Beu & Marshall, 1987: 33; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 7 Esbelta Saras˙, 1975: 2. Type species (o.d.): Ranella lanceolata Menke, 1828. Recent, Caribbean; Petit & Harasewych, 1990: 5.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca.
Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.
Tritonoharpa pseudoangasiTritonoharpa pseudoangasi Beu & Maxwell, 1987 - Kwajalein Atoll, 23mm - taken scuba diving, in 60 feet of water off Carlson Island. Described as Triton antiquatus and formerly placed in the genus Colubraria. The species is quite uncommon. Ref.: Beu, A. G. & Maxwell, P. A., 1987. Revision: Fossil and Living gastropods related to Plesiotriton: Appendix: Genera of Buccinidae [Pisaniinae] related to Colubraria Schumacher, 1817 N.Z. Geo. Surv. Paleo. Bull. 54:16-58. Tritonoharpa siphonataTritonoharpa siphonata (Reeve, 1844) - West Mexico, 16mm - trawled in 40 fathoms of water in Golfo de Tehuantepec, off Salina Cruz, Oaxaca. A synonym is Colubraria panamensis M.Smith, 1947. Ranges from Mexico to Panama. Ref.: Petit, R.E. & Harasewych, M.G. 1990. Cat. Superfamily Cancellarioidea F.&B.. p. 21. / Keen, A.M., 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West American. p.511. fig. 972.
  back to menutop of page